Several key issues related to land-use planning in Indonesia such as: Overlapping auhorities (central vs district, among sectors) and ambiguous regulations/policies; Policies and land-use often driven by large scale business and political agenda; Status of state owned land vs customary land, local people vs investor/concession holder are source of tenurial conflict; Communities hesitate to choose between exploitation following economic opportunities vs sustainable management based on customary law and small scale practices; Ecosystem functions or services never considered (ecosystem based LUP, ecosystem based adaptation); A need for an integrated planning using detailed and large scale mapping in the processes; Monitoring and evaluation are missing from current land-use implementation.
Poor coordination between spatial planning related institutions is one of land-use planning issues. This situation is worsen by the fact that many technical jobs are handled by consultants instead of technical staff in local government institutions leading to poor data and lack of transparency. Additionally, political interests from powerful groups often alter the implementation of what was actually planned. Forest utilization is not transparent, is not integrated to other agricultural sector and is neglecting local wisdom. Poor forest management has impact on conflicts related to utilization of forest resources.
Conflict related to land utilization shows that it happened because of unclear land status. Some land that was used by community for generations was suddenly promoted as a location for Community Plantation Forest (Hutan Tanaman Rakyat/HTR) but since the community was not informed/involved, conflicts developed quickly. The situation even more complex since this area was also claimed as a national park.
Any new proposal for land-use planning (Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah/RTRW) from districts and provincial levels in Indonesia should be first reviewed by a team at national level formed by Minister of Forestry. This team will analyse the proposal and recommend for endorsement from the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat/DPR).
The process of participation is essential: the desired land-use planning should have strengths in terms of equity of involved stakeholders, participative and collaborative in its’ processes, has a clear and specific border of area, supported by regulations, reviewed by a capable team, and using up to date mapping technology.
Some assumptions that need to be challenged in existing land-use planning include balancing interests from different stakeholders, monitoring, welfare, data availability, inconsistent regulations, land allocation assessment, and capacity building.
Some actions that will improve current land-use planning are: accommodating communities’ interests, using method that can improve coordination between stakeholders (such as Participatory Prospective Analysis), and using socio-ecologically based land allocation to ensure sustainable resource utilization and welfare.
The European Union funded Collaborative Land Use Planning and Sustainable Institutional Arrangements project is being implemented by the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (Centre de coopération internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, CIRAD) in partnership with CIFOR, Telapak and several local nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and universities. The project aims to contribute to reducing environmental degradation and strengthening land tenure and community rights by collaboratively integrating all stakeholders’ views in land-use planning processes. The outputs revolve around the relationship between land-use planning, land allocation and the provision and scoping for possible payment of ecosystem services. The project focuses on two regencies (kabupaten) in Indonesia: Kapuas Hulu and Central Maluku.